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Capability-based Financial Instruments

[Bodnar87] George H. Bodnar and William S. Hopwood, "Accounting Information Systems", 3rd ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1987.

[Cartwright91] Robert Cartwright, Mike Fagan, "Soft Typing", Proceedings of the SIGPLAN '91 Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation.

[Chaum82] David Chaum, "Blind Signatures for Untraceable Payments," in Advances in Cryptology Proceedings of Crypto 82, D. Chaum, R.L. Rivest, & A.T. Sherman (Eds.), Plenum, pp. 199-203.

[Church41] Alonzo Church, "The Calculi of Lambda Conversion ", Annals of Mathematical Studies no. 6. Princeton University Press (Princeton, 1941). Reprinted by Klaus Reprint Corp. (New York, 1965). First three pages online at

[Close99] Tyler Close, "Droplet Security", 1999,


[Crockford97] Douglas Crockford, personal communications.

[Dennis66] Dennis and E. Van Horn, "Programming semantics for multiprogrammed computations," CACM, vol. 9, pp. 143155, Mar. 1966. (I-B5, II-B1, II-E).

[Deutsch99] Peter Deutsch, personal communications.

[Donnelley76] Jed E. Donnelley, "A Distributed Capability Computing System" Third International Conference on Computer Communication, Toronto, Canada, 1976.

[Donnelley81] Jed E. Donnelley, "Managing Domains in a Network Operating System" (1981) Proceedings of the Conference on Local Networks and Distributed Office Systems, Online, pp. 345-361.

[Doorn96] Leendert van Doorn, Martin Abadi, Michael Burrows, and Edward P. Wobber. "Secure Network Objects" in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, pages 211-221. IEEE Computer Society, May 1996



[Ellison99] Carl Ellison, Bill Frantz, Butler Lampson, Ron Rivest, B. Thomas, and T. Ylonen, "SPKI Certificate Theory" IETF RFC 2693.

[Gamma95] Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, John Vlissides, "Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software" Addison-Wesley Professional Computing, 1995.

[Goldberg76] Edited by Adele Goldberg and Alan Kay "Smalltalk 72 Instruction Manual", Xerox PARC, March 1976. Online at

[Gosling96] James Gosling, Bill Joy, Guy Steele, Chapter 6.6 "Access Control" of "The Java Language Specification", Addison-Wesley, 1996.

[Granovetter73] Mark Granovetter, "The Strength of Weak Ties", in: American Journal of Sociology (1973) Vol. 78, pp.1360-1380. Online at

[Hardy] Norm Hardy, "Synergy, Rights Amplification, Sibling Communication, and Sealing",

[Hardy85] Norm Hardy, "The KeyKOS Architecture", Operating Systems Review, September 1985, pp. 8-25. Updated at

[Hardy88] Norm Hardy, "The Confused Deputy, or why capabilities might have been invented", Operating Systems Review, pp. 36:38, Oct., 1988,

[Hewitt73] Carl Hewitt, Peter Bishop, Richard Stieger, "A Universal Modular Actor Formalism for Artificial Intelligence", Proceedings of the 1973 International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 235-246.

[Kahn88] Kenneth Kahn, and Mark S. Miller, "Language Design and Open Systems", in, Bernardo Huberman (ed.), Ecology of Computation (Elsevier Science Publishers/North-Holland, 1988).

[Kay99] derived from remarks by Alan Kay, personal communications.

[MacKenzie99] Philip MacKenzie and Jeffrey Sorensen, "Anonymous Investing: Hiding the Identities of Stockholders", Matthew Franklin, ed., Financial Cryptography, Proceedings of the Third International Conference, 1999, Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 1648.

[Miller87] Mark S. Miller, Daniel G. Bobrow, Eric Dean Tribble, and Jacob Levy, "Logical Secrets", in: Shapiro, Ehud, (ed.), Concurrent Prolog: Collected Papers (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1987).

[Miller99] Mark S. Miller, "Inheritance By Static Delegation",, 1999.

[Morris73] James H. Morris, "Protection in Programming Languages", CACM 16(1):15-21, 1973. Online at

[Parnas72] David Parnas, "On the Criteria To Be Used in Decomposing Systems into Modules", CACM, vol 15, num. 12, Dec. 1972.

[Rees96] Jonathan Rees, "A Security Kernel Based on the Lambda-Calculus", (MIT, Cambridge, MA, 1996) MIT AI Memo No. 1564.

[Rivest77] Ronald L. Rivest, Adi Shamir, Len Adelman, "A Method for Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public Key Cryptosystems," MIT LCS Technical Memorandum 82 (Revised August 1977) at 10.

[Saltzer75] Jerome H. Saltzer, Michael D. Schroeder, "The Protection of Information in Computer Systems", Proceedings of the IEEE. Vol. 63, No. 9 (September 1975), pp. 1278-1308.

[Sansom86] Robert D. Sansom, D. P. Julian, Richard Rashid, "Extending a Capability Based System Into a Network Environment" (1986) Research sponsored by DOD, pp. 265-274.

[Schelling63] Thomas C. Schelling, "The Strategy of Conflict", Oxford University Press, New York, 1963

[Schneier96] Bruce Schneier, "Why Cryptography Is Harder Than It Looks", Counterpane Systems, 1996,

[Selgin88] George Selgin, "The Theory of Free Banking: Money Supply Under Competitive Note Issue", Rowman & Littlefield, 1988.

[Shalit96] Andrew Shalit, "The Dylan Reference Manual: The Definitive Guide to the New Object-Oriented Dynamic Language", Addison Wesley, 1996, chapter on Modules

[Shannon48] Claude E. Shannon, ``A Mathematical Theory of Communication,'' Bell System Technical Journal, vol. 27, pp. 379-423 and 623-656, July and October, 1948.

[Shapiro99] Jonathan S. Shapiro, "EROS: A Capability System", Ph.D. thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 1999.

[Szabo97] Nick Szabo, "Formalizing and Securing Relationships on Public Networks", First Monday, vol 2 no 9, updated copy at

[Tanenbaum86] Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Sape J. Mullender, Robbert van Renesse, "Using Sparse Capabilities in a Distributed Operating System" (1986) Proc. Sixth Int'l Conf. On Distributed Computing Systems, IEEE, pp. 558-563.

[Tribble95] Eric Dean Tribble, Mark S. Miller, Norm Hardy, Dave Krieger, "Joule: Distributed Application Foundations",, 1995.

[Wollrath99] Ann Wollrath and Jim Waldo, "Trail: RMI" in "The Java Tutorial,, 1999.

[Wulf74] William Wulf et al, "HYDRA: The kernel of a multiprocessor operating system," CACM, vol. 17, pp. 337-345, June 1974. (I-A2, II-B3, III-A). Online at (See also for an overview.)

Unless stated otherwise, all text on this page which is either unattributed or by Mark S. Miller is hereby placed in the public domain.
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